Conclusion

Bu jutsu came about in order to suppress bō ryoku and many types of bu jutsu were developed to that end. The moral code behind bu jutsu was “hate the violence, not the person”. Concentrating on the “waza” at the same time educates the “heart” that seeks the “way” to this morality. In other words, a strong martial heart (武心) can be cultivated which stands apart from bō ryoku.

Jū jutsu placed “taosu” and “osaeru” at the centre of achieving the purpose of bu ryoku, “to control “bō ryoku” without causing harm to life”. In order to achieve this, “shizentai” movement and quick, nimble “i dō ryoku” (tai sabaki) were placed into fundamental practices (kihon kōzō).

It is said that the development of kendō and jūdō are central to the history of Japanese budō. To explain this in practical terms, “ken no ki” (the spirit of the sword) and “jū no ri” (the principle of softness) must be at their core. The former has the character of yang, the latter of yin. In the “ten no maki” (Heavenly Scroll) of ki tō ryū jū jutsu, it is said that “one can win with yang, one can win with yin”.

The meaning of this is not simply to teach the mechanics of standing techniques (立技) with yang form, or lying-down (groundwork) techniques (寝技) with yin form, but rather to understand the mechanics of “the spirit of the sword” and “the principle of softness” in practical terms.

Jū jutsu has the two categories of a “grappling” fight with “nage waza” and “katame waza”, and a fight “from distance apart” with “atemi waza” and “kansetsu waza”. In the modernisation of jū jutsu, the “sports arena” has replaced the “battleground” and in order to understand the principles of victory and defeat in each case, two “randori” practice methods are required.

Furthermore, other fighting systems and techniques that cannot be approached through “randori” should not be neglected but practised through “kata”. The continuation of these practices (修行) over a lifetime is of great value.

(Refer to Tables 1-3)